9 High-Performance Tips when using Oracle with JPA and Hibernate

Imagine having a tool that can automatically detect JPA and Hibernate performance issues. Wouldn’t that be just awesome?

Well, Hypersistence Optimizer is that tool! And it works with Spring Boot, Spring Framework, Jakarta EE, Java EE, Quarkus, or Play Framework.

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In this article, I’m going to show you 9 tips that will help you speed up your Oracle database application when using JPA and Hibernate.

To get the most out of the relational database in use, you need to make sure the data access layer resonates with the underlying database system, so, in this article, I’m going to present you several tips that can boost up the performance of your Oracle, JPA and Hibernate applications.

1. Configure the Buffer Pool and OS cache

Like any relational database system, Oracle is designed to minimize disk access as much as possible.

Oracle Buffer Pool

When a page is needed, Oracle checks the Buffer Pool to see if the page can be resolved from the cache. That’s a logical read. If there’s no page cached, Oracle loads it from the disk and stores it in the Buffer Pool. That’s a physical read. This way, the next time you request the same page, it will be loaded from the cache and not from the database.

Traditionally, database systems use two logs to mark transaction modifications:

  • the undo log is used to restore uncommitted changes in case of a rollback. In Oracle, the undo log stores the diff between the latest uncommitted tuple and the previous state.
  • the redo_log ensures transaction durability and stores every transaction modification since the Buffer Pool is not flushed to disk after every transaction execution. So, for this reason, the Buffer Pool is flushed periodically during checkpoints.

Since Unix-based operation systems have their own page cache, it’s important to mount the data and index partitions using Direct I/O (e.g., O_DIRECT) to avoid storing the same page in both the OS cache and the Buffer Pool.

2. Learn all supported SQL features

Oracle supports many of the SQL:2016 standard features, such as Window Functions, CTE, Recursive CTE, PIVOT, MERGE, and even the MATCH_RECOGNIZE clause that only Oracle added support for.

Besides those SQL standard features, Oracle has been provided DB-specific features as well, such as the MODEL clause.

Oracle also provides DB-specific features, such as the MODEL clause or Flashback queries.

So, if you restrict your data access queries to the SQL:92 feature list that you learned in college or on W3 Schools, you are going to miss a lot of features that can help you address very complex data access requirements.

It’s very important to read the Oracle documentation and get familiar with all the features that it offers.

And, just because you are using JPA and Hibernate, it doesn’t mean that you should only write JPQL and Criteria API queries. There’s a very good reason why the JPA EntityManager allows you to run native SQL queries because any non-trivial database application will need to execute native SQL.

3. Optimize for the execution plan cache

Unlike PostgreSQL and MySQL, Oracle provides an Execution Plan Cache that allows you to speed up the SQL query execution.

Execution Plan Cache

The Execution Plan Cache can even store multiple plans for a given query to match various bind parameter values that have a very skewed data distribution.

Knowing how the execution plan cache works, you should then configure your data access layer to take advantage of this very useful feature. Therefore, you should:

4. Enable the JDBC statement cache mechanism

The Oracle JDBC Driver provides a statement caching mechanism that is disabled by default. So, to speed up your SQL queries, you should enable it by setting the oracle.jdbc.implicitStatementCacheSize property to a positive integer value.

You can do this declaratively via the JDBC URL connection string:

jdbc:oracle:thin:@tcp://hpjp:1521/training? oracle.jdbc.implicitStatementCacheSize=100

Or, programmatically, via the JDBC DataSource properties:

OracleDataSource dataSource = new OracleDataSource();

Properties properties = new Properties();

5. Increase the default JDBC statement fetch size

Unlike PostgreSQL and MySQL, which prefetch the entire JDBC ResultSet, Oracle uses a fetch size of just 10. So, a query that returns 50 records requires 5 database roundtrips to fetch all the data from the database Executor.

For this reason, you should always increase the default fetch size when using Oracle. If you’re using Hibernate, you can apply this change globally to all the SQL statements via the hibernate.jdbc.fetch_size configuration property.

For instance, if you;re using Spring Boot, you can set this property in the application.properties configuration file, like this:


And, if you’re using database cursors to get a Java 8 Stream, then you can always set the fetch size to a lower value using the org.hibernate.fetchSize JPA query hint:

Stream<Post> postStream = entityManager.createQuery("""
    select p
    from Post p
    order by p.createdOn desc
    """, Post.class)
.setHint(QueryHints.HINT_FETCH_SIZE, 10)

6. Enable automatic JDBC batching

For writing data, JDBC statement batching can help you reduce the transaction response time. When using Hibernate, enabling batching is just a matter of setting some configuration properties

So, you should always set the following Hibernate settings set in your Spring Boot application.properties configuration file:


If you’re using optimistic locking and you’re not using at least Oracle 12c, then you should try to upgrade the JDBC Driver to at least the 12c version since the JDBC Driver is both backward and forward compatible, and set the following configuration property:



Oracle 12c added support for IDENTITY columns. However, you should use the SEQUENCE identifier generator to auto-increment Primary Keys because this will allow Hibernate to use automatic batching for the INSERT statements.

For more details, check out this article.

8. Use the Hibernate @RowId when mapping JPA entities

When using Oracle, you can annotate the JPA entities with the @RowId Hibernate annotation so that the UPDATE statement can locate the record by its ROWID instead of the Primary Key value.

For more details about this topic, check out this article.

9. Store non-structured data in JSON column types

In a relational database, it’s best to store data according to the principles of the relational model.

However, it might be that you also need to store non-structured data, in which case, a JSON column can help you deal with such a requirement.

While Oracle 21c will add a JSON column type:

  isbn VARCHAR2(15 CHAR),
  properties JSON

If you’re using Oracle 19c, 18c, or 12c, you can store JSON objects in VARCHAR2, BLOB, or CLOB column types. It’s recommended to store small JSON objects so they can fit in a VARCHAR2(4000) column and, therefore, fit into the Buffer Pool page.

When you create the table, you can validate the stored JSON objects using a CHECK constraint:

  isbn VARCHAR2(15 CHAR),
  properties VARCHAR2(4000)

To index JSON attributes that have high selectivity, you can use a B+Tree index:

CREATE INDEX book_properties_title_idx 
ON book b (b.properties.title)

To index JSON attributes that have low selectivity, such as boolean or Enum values, you can use a BITMAP index:

CREATE BITMAP INDEX book_properties_reviews_idx 
ON book (JSON_EXISTS(properties,'$.reviews'))

Because a bitmap index record references many rows of the associated indexed table, concurrent UPDATE or DELETE statements can lead to concurrency issues (e.g., deadlocks, lock timeouts, high response times).

For this reason, they are useful for read-only columns or if the column values change very infrequently.

You can also use a generic SEARCH index for the JSON column, which will allow you to match key/value JSON attribute data:

CREATE SEARCH INDEX book_search_properties_idx 
ON book (properties) FOR JSON

For JPA and Hibernate, you can use the JsonType from the Hypersistence Utils project to map JSON columns, and this mapping will work with Oracle, PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQL Server, and H2.

For more details about how you can use the JsonType to map JSON columns, check out this article.

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Apply all these Tips when using Oracle with JPA and Hibernate

As you can see, there are many tips you can apply when using Oracle with JPA and Hibernate.

Since Oracle is the most advanced RDBMS, it’s very useful to know how it works in order to get the most out of it.

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