In Concurrency Control theory, there are two ways you can deal with conflicts:
- You can avoid them, by employing a pessimistic locking mechanism (e.g. Read/Write locks, Two-Phase Locking)
- You can allow conflicts to occur, but you need to detect them using an optimistic locking mechanism (e.g. logical clock, MVCC)
Because MVCC (Multi-Version Concurrency Control) is such a prevalent Concurrency Control technique (not only in relational database systems, in this article, I’m going to explain how it works.
Continue reading “How does MVCC (Multi-Version Concurrency Control) work”
Today, one of my Twitter followers sent me the following StackOverflow question, and, while answering it, I realized that it definitely deserves a post of its own.
In this post, I will explain how you can encrypt and decrypt data with Hibernate.
Continue reading “How to encrypt and decrypt data with Hibernate”
While doing my High-Performance Java Persistence training, I came to realize that it’s worth explaining how a relational database works, as otherwise, it is very difficult to grasp many transaction-related concepts like atomicity, durability, and checkpoints.
In this post, I’m going to give a high-level explanation of how a relational database works internally while also hinting some database-specific implementation details.
Continue reading “How does a relational database work”
Relational database systems employ various Concurrency Control mechanisms to provide transactions with ACID property guarantees. While isolation levels are one way of choosing a given Concurrency Control mechanism, you can also use explicit locking whenever you want a finer-grained control to prevent data integrity issues.
As previously explained, there are two types of explicit locking mechanisms: pessimistic (physical) and optimistic (logical). In this post, I’m going to explain how explicit pessimistic locking interacts with non-query DML statements (e.g. insert, update, and delete).
Continue reading “How does database pessimistic locking interact with INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE SQL statements”
Unlike SQL Server which, by default, relies on the 2PL (Two-Phase Locking) to implement the SQL standard isolation levels, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and MySQL InnoDB engine use MVCC (Multi-Version Concurrency Control).
However, providing a truly Serializable isolation level on top of MVCC is really difficult, and, in this post, I’ll demonstrate that it’s very difficult to prevent the Phantom Read anomaly without resorting to pessimistic locking.
Continue reading “A beginner’s guide to the Phantom Read anomaly, and how it differs between 2PL and MVCC”