How to return a Map result from a JPA or Hibernate query

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Introduction

In this article, I’m going to show you how you can return a Java Map result when executing a JPA query. I decided to write this article after answering a similar question on StackOverflow.

Domain Model

Assuming we are using the following Post entity which has a createdOn attribute of the LocalDate Java type:

Post entity JPQ Query Map result

And, we have persisted the following Post entity into our database:

entityManager.persist(
    new Post()
        .setId(1L)
        .setTitle(
            "High-Performance Java Persistence eBook " +
            "has been released!"
        )
        .setCreatedOn(LocalDate.of(2016, 8, 30))
);

entityManager.persist(
    new Post()
        .setId(2L)
        .setTitle(
            "High-Performance Java Persistence paperback " +
            "has been released!"
        )
        .setCreatedOn(LocalDate.of(2016, 10, 12))
);

entityManager.persist(
    new Post()
        .setId(3L)
        .setTitle(
            "High-Performance Java Persistence Mach 1 video course " +
            "has been released!"
        )
        .setCreatedOn(LocalDate.of(2018, 1, 30))
);

entityManager.persist(
    new Post()
        .setId(4L)
        .setTitle(
            "High-Performance Java Persistence Mach 2 video course " +
            "has been released!"
        )
        .setCreatedOn(LocalDate.of(2018, 5, 8))
);

entityManager.persist(
    new Post()
        .setId(5L)
        .setTitle(
            "Hypersistence Optimizer " +
            "has been released!"
        )
        .setCreatedOn(LocalDate.of(2019, 3, 19))
);

Counting posts published per year

Now, we want to build a report which displays the number of posts by their publishing year. For this, we can use the following JPQL query:

select 
    YEAR(p.createdOn) as year, 
    count(p) as postCount 
from 
    Post p 
group by 
    YEAR(p.createdOn)

Traditionally, the getResultList JPA Query method has been used whenever the result set contained multiple rows. However, we don’t want to return a List when executing this query. Since we have a projection of two columns where the first one is unique, we are better off returning a Map instead.

Returning a Map result using JPA Query getResultStream

As I explained in this article, you can use the JPA 2.2 getResultStream to transform the List<Tuple> result into a Map<Integer, Integer>:

Map<Integer, Integer> postCountByYearMap = entityManager.createQuery("""
    select
       YEAR(p.createdOn) as year,
       count(p) as postCount
    from
       Post p
    group by
       YEAR(p.createdOn)
    """, Tuple.class)
.getResultStream()
.collect(
    Collectors.toMap(
        tuple -> ((Number) tuple.get("year")).intValue(),
        tuple -> ((Number) tuple.get("postCount")).intValue()
    )
);

The Collectors.toMap method returns a Collector that returns a HashMap with the key mapped by the first lambda function provided and the value mapped by the second lambda function.

Returning a Map result using JPA Query getResultList

If you’re using JPA 2.1 or older versions, but your application is running on Java 8 or a newer version, then you can use getResultList and transform the List<Tuple> to a Java 8 stream:

Map<Integer, Integer> postCountByYearMap = entityManager.createQuery("""
    select
       YEAR(p.createdOn) as year,
       count(p) as postCount
    from
       Post p
    group by
       YEAR(p.createdOn)
	""", Tuple.class)
.getResultList()
.stream()
.collect(
    Collectors.toMap(
        tuple -> ((Number) tuple.get("year")).intValue(),
        tuple -> ((Number) tuple.get("postCount")).intValue()
    )
);

Returning a Map result using a Hibernate-specific ResultTransformer

Another option is to use the MapResultTransformer class provided by the Hypersistence Utils open-source project:

Map<Number, Number> postCountByYearMap = (Map<Number, Number>) 
entityManager.createQuery("""
    select
       YEAR(p.createdOn) as year,
       count(p) as postCount
    from
       Post p
    group by
       YEAR(p.createdOn)
	""")
.unwrap(org.hibernate.query.Query.class)
.setResultTransformer(
    new MapResultTransformer<Number, Number>()
)
.getSingleResult();

The MapResultTransformer is suitable for projects still running on Java 6 or using older Hibernate versions.

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Conclusion

Both JPA and Hibernate provide a lot of flexibility when it comes to transforming the result set of a given JPQ query, be it JPQL, Criteria API, or native SQL query.

If a given JPA GROUP BY query returns only two columns where one is unique, it’s very suitable to return the result as a Java Map. For this, you can use either the Java Stream functionality or the Hibernate-specific ResultTransformer.

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2 Comments on “How to return a Map result from a JPA or Hibernate query

  1. Nice post.

    I was wondering if it is also possible to return a more complex Map, not just a Map of 2 columns corresponding to two primitive values.

    Let’s say, for example, that the value of the map will be the list of the entities after grouping them:

    Map<String, List> where the key is the currency (as String) of the payment and the value is the list of grouped payments by currency (as a List of the entities themselves). Here my entity is the Payment, and currency is just a property of the entity that I want to use to do the grouping.

    Of course, I could just get the list of my entities and later do the grouping by currency in service layer (just using Java Stream groupingBy collector), but this would not take advantage of doing the grouping in the DB layer, instead of the service layer.

    F.

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